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美国公立中学和私立中学:有什么不同?

2008-11-17 16:18:57 美国高中申请网

从去年底到今年初,办理让学生去美国私立中学的家长人数猛增.这些家长的目标是想要寻找美国的重点私立中学,却忽视了这些学校是否能满足学生的需求.怎样选择公立和私立学校呢?对很多没有去过美国的中国家长来说确实是一个难题.下面我将公立中学和私立中学做一个对比供我们中国的家长参考.其中掺杂了我的一些个人见解和留学案例.

  学费

  Public schools cannot charge tuition. They are funded through federal, state and local taxes. When you pay your taxes, you are paying for your child's education and the education of other children in your community.公立学校是不收学费的.但是国内的交流项目收取大概10万左右人民币作为服务费用.学生拿到1年的J-1签证.1年之后必须回国.而可选择的学校面非常窄.由于中美两国教育体制并不完全衔接,所以学生回国后反而面临诸多困难.

  Private schools cost money. Private schools do not receive tax revenues, but instead are funded through tuition, fundraising, donations and private grants. According to the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), the median tuition for their member private day schools in 2005-2006 in the United States was close to $14,000 for grades 1 to 3, $15,000 for grades 6 to 8 and $16,600 for grades 9 to 12. The median tuition for their member boarding schools was close to $29,000 for grades 1 to 3, $32,000 for grades 6 to 12. Note that of the 28,384 private schools in the United States, about 1,058 are affiliated with NAIS. The Digest of Education Statistics 2005 from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports that for the 1999-2000 school year, the average private school tuition was about $4,700. 2005-2006年私立中学6-12年级(小学6年级到高三)年平均学费在$32,000.从07年开始,在北京樱知叶办理留学的学生年龄小到13岁大到17岁,大部分家长不在意学校的费用,更在意学校的排名\录取率\AP课程\入学考试要求\SAT平均分.虽然美国中学留学这个市场还处于培育阶段,但我们的家长通过各种渠道对美国私立寄宿中学的理解可以说是在不断的加深.对大部分中国学生而言,除了基本的学费以外,可能还要申请ESL语言课程,每学年可能要另加2000--5000美金不等.这里特别要说明的是,美国私立中学收取国际学生学费和本土学生是一样的.所以仅仅能付得起学费不是入学的唯一保障.学校对国际学生收取的申请费50-200美金不等.

  录取

  Public schools admit all children. By law, public schools must educate all children, including students with special needs. To enroll in a public school you simply register your child by filling out the necessary paperwork.公立学校根据法律录取所有学生,原则类似北京现在施行的就近入学原则.

  Private schools are selective. They are not obligated to accept every child, and in many private schools admission is very competitive.私立学校入学竞争十分激烈.美国顶尖和一流私立中学要求9-10年级托福和SSAT;11-12年级托福和PSAT或者SAT.

  美国二三流中学要求托福或者SSAT成绩,托福考试难报名现象至今还在,SSAT目前只有上海一个考点,考试时间很有局限性,这个时候家长可以考虑在北京樱知叶参加SLEP测试而该成绩可以代替托福成绩.除以上成绩外,大部分学校还要求学生参加英文面试.

  也有部分美国中学理解中国的考试难问题,不要求学生提供以上成绩,但是要求学生必须参加英文面试,反而对学生的要求更高,一旦面试砸了,很难被录取.

  私立中学录取有点类似大学录取.顶尖高中截止日期在1-1日.这类高中比申请进哈佛还难.中国大陆学生很少有能够满足申请条件的.光考试成绩的要求就把无数优秀学子拒之门外了.

  其它学校截止日期分别为1-15日;2-1日;2-15日;3-1日;4-1日;还有一些是滚动录取,额满为止.我的建议是高中越早申请越好.中国的家长和学生等不起.第一轮申请的录取通知大概在3-10日发出来,学生在4-10日前要给学校一个答复.没有招满的学校接下来才会考虑第二轮申请.

  管理

  Public schools must follow all federal, state and local laws in educating children. Such laws usually include specifics about funding, program development and curriculum.公立学校根据联邦或者州法律管理学校.

  Private schools are not subject to as many state and federal regulations as public schools. Since private schools are funded independently, they are not subject to the limitations of state education budgets and have more freedom in designing curriculum and instruction.私立学校管理模式自由.还可以根据需求自行设置课程.

  课程

  Public schools offer a general program, designed for all children, which usually includes math, English, reading, writing, science, history and physical education. In addition to these key subjects, many public schools offer programs in music and art. In a public school, the substance of what children learn is mandated by the state and learning is measured through state standardized tests.公立学校提供常规课程.

  NOTE: The charter school movement is picking up momentum in many states; these schools are public, but many offer specialized programs and smaller classes.

  Private schools have the flexibility to create a specialized program for students. For example, private schools may use art or science in all classes, or take children on extended outdoor trips that blend lessons across the curriculum. Private schools can create their own curriculum and assessment systems, although many also choose to use standardized tests.私立学校课程种类丰富多样,还可以根据学生特点定制创新课程.通常一所私立中学提供的课程种类涵盖几十个类别二三百门课程.为孩子德智体美劳的全面发展提供最大的平台.例如女校的艺术课程\马术课程\礼仪课程非常流行和受欢迎.

  教师

  Public schools: All teachers in a public school are usually state certified or, at a minimum, working toward certification. Certification ensures that a teacher has gone through the training required by the state, which includes student teaching and coursework.公立学校老师必须有教师证才能上岗.

  Private schools: Teachers in private schools may not be required to have certification, and instead often have subject area expertise and an undergraduate or graduate degree in the subject they teach.私立学校老师更多的是某个领域的专家或学者.很多教师拥有美国牛校的博士学位.

  学生

  Public schools: The children at most public schools usually reflect the community. Students may be split up based on ability or interests, but in many public schools, there is a diversity of student backgrounds.学生主要来自同一个社区,不论贫富.

  NOTE: In many states, if you are not satisfied with your assigned school, you may be able to send your child to another public school in the area.

  Private schools: The student population at a private school is determined through a selection process; all students must apply and be accepted in order to attend. Although students may be from different neighborhoods, they will probably have similar goals and interests. This tends to create a fairly homogenous student body.因为学校对学生有筛选的一个过程,所以学生有比较相似的目标和兴趣.且学生来自五湖四海,多数寄宿中学对来自各个地区\国家的学生有名额限制,以保证学校做到真正的多元化.

  特殊需求

  Public schools: Due to special education laws, public schools must educate all children, and provide the necessary programs to meet their special needs. This means that most public schools have special education programs and teachers who are trained to work with students who have particular needs.根据特殊教育法,公立学校提供特殊服务给有需求的学生.

  Private schools: Private schools do not have to accept children with special needs, and many choose not to (although there are a small number of private schools specifically designed for special needs children). As a result, most private schools do not have special education programs or teachers trained to work with students with severe special needs. Private schools will try to help all the students they admit, but extra resources may also come at an additional cost.大部分私立学校不提供服务给特殊需求的学生,但也有小部分学校会有个别可能,但要取额外费用.

  班级规模

  Public schools: Many states recognize the value of small classes and have provided funding to keep class sizes small in grades K-3. As students become older, class size tends to get bigger in public schools, especially in large school districts and urban schools.班级人数较多.

  Private schools: Private schools are generally committed to providing small classes and individual attention to students. Many parents choose private schools for this reason.平均人数在12人.因为私立学校致力于提供小班授课,也是家长选择私立学校的一个理由.

  The Bottom Line

  There are a few fundamental differences between public and private schools, but here's the bottom line: There are great private schools and there are great public schools. The trick is finding the school that best fits your child's needs. You may also want to consider public charter schools or homeschooling. It's a good idea to research the schools that interest you and, to get a true picture of the school, visit in person.

  虽然有很多优秀的私立学校和公立学校.但对我们中国大陆家长来说,关键是选择适合你的孩子的学校.不要以为多交了学费自己有可以随意挑选学校.从08年的申请情况看,学校筛选学生越来越严格,竞争更加激烈.适合中国大陆学生就读的美国私立中学数量有限.美国的家长可能选择小班教学但带有公立学校性质的charter schools或者家庭学校,但这些都不适合中国的学生.

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